First Presbyterian Church
of Monticello, Arkansas
The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by
driving pressurized air through pipes selected via a keyboard.
Because each organ pipe produces a single pitch, the pipes
are provided in sets called ranks, each of which has a common
timbre and volume throughout the keyboard compass. Most
organs have multiple ranks of pipes of differing timbre, pitch
and loudness that the player can employ singly or in
combination through the use of controls called stops.
A pipe organ may have one or several keyboards (called
manuals) played by the hands, and a pedal board played by
the feet, each of which has its own group of stops. The organ's
continuous supply of wind allows it to sustain notes for as long
as the corresponding keys are depressed. The smallest
portable pipe organs may have only one or two dozen pipes
and one manual; the largest may have over 20,000 pipes and
several manuals. A pipe organ typically is described with an
annotation indicating the number of manuals and ranks in the
instrument: for example, an organ described as "IV/65" has four
manuals and 65 speaking stops.
The pipe organ in the First Presbyterian Church is the only pipe
organ in Monticello. It is a 20-Rank Moller Organ Opus 9410
which was installed in October of 1960. It has two manuals and
33 stops divided into three ranks, two manuals, a foot pedal
Above: Image of the organ showing the
stops, manuals, and pedal board.
Below: Images of the organ loft and the pipes
within it. The pipes in the organ loft are
organized by timber and pitch with the larger
ones having a lower pitch and the smaller
ones having a higher pitch.